- Ceramics is characterized by the work of the earth, a malleable land, which can be resumed and work endless. Ceramics is an object in cooked clay. The word ceramic is from the Greek word Keramos which means "Clay". This term is generic it designates all the objects manufactured in the ground that have undergone an irreversible physico-chemical transformation during cooking at a higher or lower temperature. Ceramics is the first art of fire that man created long before the work of glass and metal at the end of the prehistory, to neolithic. Ceramics has become a cultural marker in most societies but also the most abundant material that humans have created. Utility or employee as artistic expression, it embodies changes in lifestyle and attests to technical progress (mastery of the four natural elements: Earth, the water, fire and the air). It restores customs, food habits and cultural practices of peoples at a given time. Daily object, subject of study or exceptional work, ceramics remains an inexhaustible source of inspiration To create lots of objects like the vase Where The flower pot.
These are terracotta objects designed froma clay commune, with a variable color that goes from gray to red depending on the composition. Red lands are oftenferruginous, white can contain limestone, of Silica, from kaolin in variable proportions. The making is made by the modeling, Mounting at Colombin (long sausage of land coiled on itself), filming and cast. Ideal cooking is between 800 and 900 ° C. The pottery are designated "glazed", when the porous dough is waterproofed using a "glaze" (Where "E-mail »).
Ceramic clay, tender, porous, covered with a waterproof and opaque coating. We count several types of earthenware: Lead lead earthenware, Stanniferous earthenware based on tin oxide and Fine earthenware created with clay chosen for the high quality of its whiteness. The decor of earthenware can be "big fire"Or"little fire». In the first case, the room has only undergone one cooking; His decor, painted on the raw enamel, was able to bear the high temperature necessary for cooking the dough and the enamel (Around 900 ° C). In the second case, the decor was placed on a baked part after installing the enamel. The colors mixed with fondants can only bear cooking at low temperature (Between 650 and 700 ° C).
Ceramic whose dough is vitrified in the mass (therefore waterproof), which is characterized by its whiteness like Fine earthenware which it is not always easy to differentiate. We commonly recognize a porcelain to its translucidity. Porcelain is born in China around the 7th-8th century AD; As soon as it is imported into Europe to Middle Ages, men are constantly imitating this material and begin to make white and translucent ceramics. Porcelain Hard (not striped in steel) and tender porcelain (without kaolin and row in steel) constitute the two large families of European porcelain; most of the time, They are covered with transparent glaze or enamel which reveals the whiteness of the dough.
Ceramic whose dough has a high proportion of silica and supports high cooking temperatures (from 1200 ° to 1400 ° C); It is partly vitrified by cooking.With sandstone, we leave the first of the two large groups which divide the families of ceramics. Pottery and earthenware are porous ceramics that are necessary to waterproof using glaze or enamel. Sandstone As porcelain are ceramics whose dough is vitrified in the mass and therefore waterproof.It is therefore for aesthetic purposes, since its appearance around the 4th century in China, its introduction to Middle East and its development from the Middle Ages in Europe, that the potters applied glazes on sandstone, by combining material and form research.